Thermal Physics Assignment Help




homework assignment help is most useful online help portal for the students that providing all Online Thermal Physics assignment help Services .Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory.

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Thermal physics, generally speaking, is the study of the statistical nature of physical systems from an energetic perspective. Starting with the basics of heat and temperature, thermal physics analyzes the first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics from the statistical perspective, in terms of the number of microstates corresponding to a given macrostate.

A central topic in thermal physics is the canonical probability distribution. The electromagnetic nature of photons and phonons are studied which show that the oscillations of electromagnetic fields and of crystal lattices have much in common. Waves form a basis for both, provided one incorporates quantum theory.

Thermal expansion:

Most materials enlarge when their temperature raise. The railway tracks require particular joints and supports to allocate for expansion. A totally filled and strongly capped container of water crack when it is heated, but you can release the lid of a metal jar by organization hot water over it.The given examples of thermal expansion.

Thermal Expansion

            When heat is given to a substance, its size usually increases. In order words the substance expands on heating. Thermal expansion is an important effect of heat and occurs in all substances: solids, Liquids and gases. In general various substances expand on heating and contract on cooling, but there are a few exceptions: water from 0⁰ to 4⁰ C and silica below -80⁰C contract when heated.

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Common engineering solids typically have coefficients of thermal expansion that do not vary considerably over the array of temperatures anywhere they are calculated to be used, so where very high accuracy is not necessary, calculations can be based on a stable, average, rate of the coefficient of expansion.

For solid materials with a important length, like rods or cables, an approximation of the amount of thermal expansion can be describe by the €thermal ratio of strain:

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  •  Linitial is the length previous to the alter of temperature and
  •  Lfinial is the length behind the alter of temperature.

For the majority solids, thermal expansion relates straight with temperature

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Thus, the change in either the strain or temperature can be estimated by:

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is the variation of the temperature connecting the two recorded strains, exact in degrees Celsius or Kelvin’s, and αL is the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in inverse Kelvin’s.

Examples and Applications

Heat-induce expansion has to be taken into explanation in most area of engineering. A few examples are,

  • Metal framed window need rubber spacers.
  • Metal boiling water heating pipe should not be used in long straight lengths.
  • Huge structures such as railways and bridges require expansion joints in the structures to avoid sun kink.

Introduction to thermal conductors and insulators:    

Let us see about thermal conductors and thermal insulators,

          A thermal conductor is an object which is used to conduct heat through itself. These objects or elements heat up very soon and also heat up their surroundings also. An insulator is a material which is known as dielectric and it is used to control the flow of electric current.

Thermal Conductors:

Let us see about definitions of Thermal Conductors,

  • These conductors are used for thermal conduction.
  • By this conduction the thermal energy is transferred through matter.Thermal conductors are elements which having a strong molecular bond. It is used to permit the molecular actions to these elements for moving in a fast manner.
  • They are used for conduction of heat and electricity in various objects.Their strong atomic structure permits them to be tight conductors of heat.

Examples of thermal conductors:

  • Usually metals are acting as good materials.
  • The best materials are carbon and diamond.

The cause for this is that both diamond and carbon having strong molecular bonds in very regular order assembly it simple for molecular vibrations for travel quickly and efficiently through the materials.

Thermal Insulators:

Let us see about definitions of thermal insulators,

  • An insulating material contains atoms among strongly bonded valence electrons.
  • These materials are acting as parts of heat apparatus, also known as heat insulators. This process is known as heat insulation.
  • Thermal insulation is the process of control heat from avoidance a container or from incoming the container by thermal insulators.
  • In this process the thermal insulators are used to reduce the rate of thermal transfer and this methods need to decrease heat transfer.
  • Energy produced by the heat will be moved by using the conduction of heat, convection of heat , radiation of heat or by real association of material from one place to another.
  • These above three processes are resisting by an insulators.


Examples for thermal insulators:

  • Non-metals are good thermal insulator.
  • Other thermal insulators are Rubber, tinfoil, wood, cloth, paper, Styrofoam and plastic.

Introduction to temperature and thermal equilibrium

Temperature is the degree of the hotness or coldness of a body. When two bodies are placed in contact to each other, the heat flows from higher body temperature to lower body temperature. It can explained like there are two containers having water at different levels. Of we connect both the containers by a tube attaching at the bottom of both the containers the water flows from higher level to the lower level.

Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium : Temperature

Temperature may be defined as the thermal state of the body, which decides the direction of flow of heat energy from one body to another when they are placed in the thermal contact to each other. The temperature of a body is the measurement of average kinetic energy of the molecules of that body. When a body is heated, its molecules move faster. Their average kinetic energy increases. This will increase the temperature of the body.  Temperature is an effect of heat as we supply heat to any system, the temperature increases and as we take out heat from any system the temperature of the system decreases. In the thermodynamics the temperature follows from the zeroth law of thermodynamics.

Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium : Thermal Equilibrium

A system is said to be in the state of thermodynamic or thermal equilibrium if the macroscopic variables describing the thermodynamic state of the system do not change with respect to time. For example, consider a gas inside a closed rigid container completely insulated from the outer surroundings, if the temperature, pressure, volume and the mass of the system remains constant, they do not change with time, such system is called is in the state of thermal equilibrium. A system is in the state of thermal equilibrium if it posses the following three types of the equilibrium.

(i) Mechanical equilibrium: There is no unbalanced force in its interior or between the system and the surroundings.

(ii) Thermal equilibrium: All parts of the system and the surroundings are at the same temperature.

(iii) Chemical equilibrium: The system does not undergo any spontaneous change in its internal structure due to chemical reactions such as diffusion, etc.

Introduction about Thermal Nuclear Reactor:

 Let us see the introduction about thermal nuclear reactor. The thermal nuclear reactor is a device used to produce the heat. Nuclear fission takes place in the nuclear thermal reactor. It is similar to a boiler in the steam of power plant. Thermal Nuclear reactor is controlled by the nuclear chain reaction. Let us see the explanation about thermal nuclear reactor.

Explanation about Thermal Nuclear Reactor:

             The heat is generated in the reactor is carried away by the coolant circulated through the core. Pressure equalizer is used to maintain a constant pressure. A coolant pump pumps the coolant water under pressure into the reactor core.

Thermal Nuclear Reactor Components:

          The thermal nuclear reactor consists of the following components.

  • Reactor Core
  • Control mechanism
  • Moderator
  • Coolant
  • Shielding

 

Reactor Core:

         Nuclear fission reaction takes place in the reactor core. It is in the shape of right circular cylinder and consists of fuel elements, control rods, coolant and moderator.

Control Mechanism (control rods):

        Control rods are used to regulate the rate of chain reaction. They are used to absorb excess neutrons. Control rods are made up of boron steel or cadmium.

Moderator:

        Moderator is used to slow down the fast - moving electrons. Hydrogen, graphite, beryllium, heavy water can be used as moderators.

Coolant:

        Coolant is used to remove the intense heat produced in the reactor. Water is used as a coolant and sometimes liquid sodium is also used.

Shielding:

         A thermal nuclear reactor shield is providing through steel lining and another shield is made of thick concrete surrounding the reactor. This is called radiation shielding. The shield is used to protect against the harmful rays and fast neutrons.

We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of thermal nuclear reactor.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Thermal Nuclear Reactor:

Advantages of Thermal Nuclear Reactor:

  • Thermal nuclear power plant reactor requires less space.
  • Operation of the plant is reliable.
  • Fuel consumption is very small.

Disadvantages of Thermal Nuclear Reactor:

  • Capital cost is high.
  • Not suitable for varying load conditions.
  • Maintenance cost is high.

Introduction about Nuclear Thermal Energy:

Let us see the introduction about nuclear thermal energy. Energy is considered as a basic input for a country and our existence mainly depends upon the energy. Nuclear thermal energy is generated and it is used for measuring the heat. Nuclear energy is controlled by the nuclear chain reaction. Let us see the principle about nuclear thermal energy.

Principle of Nuclear Thermal Energy:

              Heat energy is converted into mechanical energy which is used for electric power generation. Uranium which is a nuclear fuel is used. The principle involved is nuclear fission.

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Explanation about Nuclear Thermal Energy:

Thermal Energy:

Device                     Energy conversion

Boiler                        Fuel is converted into Heat energy                  

Turbine                     Heat energy is converted into mechanical energy

Generator                 Mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy

Nuclear energy:

            Nuclear energy is a process of splitting up the nucleus of fissionable material like uranium into two or more fragments with release of enormous amount of energy.

            When nucleus of uranium 235 is bombarded with high energy neutrons. The atom split into two fragments there by releasing 2.5 neutrons and enormous amount of energy.

            The neutrons are produced very fast and can be to made to fission other nuclei of U235, thus setting up a chain reaction. Out of these 2.5 neutrons released, one neutron is used to sustain chain reaction, 0.9 neutron is absorbed by U238 and the remaining 0.6 neutron escapes from the reactor. Let us discuss the nuclear energy problems.

Nuclear Thermal Energy Problems:

  • There is 7% of normal power generation for even after shutdown and it is still in the reactor fuel rods.
  • Radioactive wastes, if not disposed carefully have adverse effects on environment.
  • Transportation and handling of fuel is major difficulty. These are the problems for nuclear thermal energy.

Advantages of Nuclear Thermal Energy:

  • Nuclear power plant needs less space.
  • Less workmen are required.

 

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