Control Systems Assignment Help

A Control System is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems. Such a system assures both stable and optimal operation of some engineered system. The controller, sensors, relays, the computer network, and software are concrete elements of such a system. These systems implement specifications that had been formulated by control engineers. These specifications are in turn based on the underlying mathematical models of control theory.

Visual Control System:

In the field of science the visual control system is the prominent technique to control the activity and is made easier by the usage of effective visual signals. The visual signals can range from colored clothing to teams and range to large extent and determined by visualization capacity.

The visual control system is effectively used for decision making process and common example is painted tool silhouettes in tool ranks.

Utility of Visual Control System

In brief the visual control system includes devices or mechanisms which can be used to manage different operations to meet various requirements such as

1)      Visualization of problems or abnormalities to everyone so that correct measures can be taken.

2)      Providing instructions

3)      Conveyance of Information

4)      Proper feedback to the people.

Hence by employing the proper visual control system the efficiency and effectiveness can be increased to higher range so that smaller things also are visible.

The implementation of visual control system involves various steps such as

1)      Organization of committee for program.

2)      Development of plan and proper budget.

3)      Charting of examples and cases.

4)      Wide exposure of announcement of commencement of any program

5)      Ensuring the proper training and education for the employees.

6)      Evaluation of results

7)      Analysis and self examination and helps in execution of corrective actions.

Examples of Visual Control Systems

1)      Instruction manual of various home appliances.

2)      Print instruction on cover of washing machine

3)      Tools organizer for proper organization of various tools.

4)      Pull board

5)      Red zone

6)      Yellow zone

7)      Green Zone

8)      Charts in computer system division of any software organization

Logic control

Logic control systems for industrial and commercial machinery were historically implemented at mains voltage using interconnected relays, designed using ladder logic. Today, most such systems are constructed with programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or microcontrollers. The notation of ladder logic is still in use as a programming idiom for PLCs. Logic controllers may respond to switches, light sensors, pressure switches, etc., and can cause the machinery to start and stop various operations. Logic systems are used to sequence mechanical operations in many applications. Examples include elevators, washing machines and other systems with interrelated stop-go operations.

Nervous control of digestion

There are receptors in the wall of the alimentary canal that send reflexes to the brain through sensory neurons. The brain then sends motor impulses through the motor neurons to the target glands or cells. The nervous control of digestion takes place in the following ways-

1) The secretion of saliva is controlled by two types of reflexes - unconditioned and conditioned.

The taste buds on the tongue stimulate receptors that communicate with the brain through the sensory neurons. The brain in turn stimulates the salivary glands to secrete saliva by the motor nerves. This is called unconditioned reflex.

Conditioned reflexes

were demonstrated by Pavlov. He showed that by ringing a bell every time the dog was served food this made the dog associate the sound of the bell with food. Then when the bell was rung even without the food, the dog salivated. These reflexes are called conditioned reflexes. For e.g., watering of mouth at the thought of our favourite food.

2) The gastric glands are stimulated by two types of nerve impulses. One set of impulses comes from the mouth in response to the presence of food or swallowing. The other set of impulses come from the stomach wall receptors in response to the stretching of the stomach wall, on receiving food.

3) The gastric glands are inhibited by the nerve impulses in response to the passage of acidified chyme into the duodenum. The receptors are present in the duodenal wall.

4) The presence of acidified chyme in the duodenum also triggers another reflex from the duodenal wall to the brain that slows down the release of chyme into the intestine.