Electric Circuits Assignment Help




The process of Circuit Design can cover systems ranging from complex electronic systems all the way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit. For simple circuits the design process can often be done by one person without needing a planned or structured design process, but for more complex designs, teams of designers following a systematic approach with intelligently guided computer simulation are becoming increasingly common. In integrated circuit design automation, the term "circuit design" often refers the step of the design cycle which outputs the schematics of the integrated circuit. Typically this is the step between logic design and physical design

Formal circuit design usually involves the following stages:

  • sometimes, writing the requirement specification after liaising with the customer.
  • writing a technical proposal to meet the requirements of the customer specification.
  • synthesising on paper a schematic circuit diagram, an abstract electrical or electronic circuit that will meet the specifications.
  • calculating the component values to meet the operating specifications under specified conditions.
  • performing simulations to verify the correctness of the design.
  • building a breadboard or other prototype version of the design and testing against specification.
  • making any alterations to the circuit to achieve compliance.
  • choosing a method of construction as well as all the parts and materials to be used.
  • presenting component and layout information to draughtspersons, and layout and mechanical engineers, for prototype production.
  • testing or type-testing a number of prototypes to ensure compliance with customer requirements.
  • signing and approving the final manufacturing drawings.
  • post-design services (obsolescence of components etc.).

Basic Electrical Circuits

In physics,we have chapter like electricity,where we study about electricity,charges ,electrons,different laws,circuits.Now we should understand about electricity first,then circuits,then we study types of electrical circuits.

In basic electrical circuits we have power source it may be AC or DC,electrical wires made out of copper or aluminium,plug key, a load may be a bulb, a buzzer,a voltmeter, or an ammeter etc.

In Electricity,electric current  is nothing but rate of flow of charges or electrons,so the formula is

Electric current  =   Flow of charges / Time

  I  =  Q /T

The unit of electric current is Ampere.

The circuit is the main path of electrons, where electrons flow through these path with two or more points.

Now we see the diagram of a simple basic electrical circuit.which consist of a power source like battery,connecting wires, which are conductors, plug key , an electric bulb etc

simple circuit

Types of Basic Electrical Circuits and Uses

In circuits we have two kinds 1) open circuits 2) Closed circuits.

Open circuit : In open circuit flow of current is not continuous,which have gap in the circuits,basically in open circuit we have a power source like battery,connecting wires, which are conductors, plug key , an electric bulb etc

In open circuits current has been interrupted,which cause no flow of electric current.

Uses: we use switches in home for various electrical devices like electric bulb, fan,oven ,music system,Tv, computers,refrigerator etc. ,which can make or brake flow of electricity.when we switch on, circuits gets completed and flow of electric current begins,where as in  open circuits,if we switch off light or any electrical devices the circuit brakes and stop the flow of electric current.

This open circuit really helps a lot , when excess current flows through a circuits in home,hospitals,factories,offices etc,which automatically shutdown the flow of electric current,because the fuse wire which melts and stop the flow of electric current, which saves from dangerous hazards of electric current.

During the time of fire hazards in home ,offices,factories , hospitals etc,the bimetallic strip made out of stainless steel and brass, which bends due to excess of temperature and stop flow of electric current . Hence, which avoids from dangerous electrical hazards.

bimetallic strip

 

Closed circuit: In closed circuit flow of current is continuous,where circuit is complete and no gap in the circuit,here also we use a power source,plug key, connecting wires, which are conductors, an electric bulb.

Uses: we can run any electrical devices,it may be in home,offices, factories,hospitals etc

Flow of Current in a Circuit

Flow of current in a circuit means the flow of charge in a circuit. As we connect a resistor, a key and a battery with the connecting wires, it becomes a very simple circuit. To flow the electric current in the circuit, first switch on the key so that the circuit is closed.

Flow of Current in a Circuit

The flow of electric current through any electrical circuit is only due to the motion of free electrons in the circuit. As we connect the battery to the electrical circuit, a potential difference is set up between the ends of the conductor, as the result an electric field is also set up across the conductor. One of the terminal of the battery is positive terminal and the other is negative terminal. The convectional current flows through the battery from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the battery. As we know that inside a conductor, there are so many free electrons, which are moving in the random directions. In this situation, the free electrons, which are moving in the random direction, do not constitute any electric current in the circuit because the effect of one electron balances by the other. Now in the influence of electric field, the electrons are drifted in a particular direction. The positive terminal of the battery attracts the electrons, so they move from negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal of the battery. As we know that the direction of flow of current is opposite to the direction of flow of electrons, so in the circuit the direction of flow of current is from positive terminal of the battery to the negative terminal of the battery. As the battery is discharged the potential difference across both the ends of the battery is same so that the electric current flows in the circuit is zero.

Flow of Current in a Circuit : Conclusion

Thus, we conclude that, in an electrical circuit, the electric current flows from higher potential level to lower potential level by means of electrons. The standard unit to measure the electric current is ampere. The electrical instrument ammeter can measure electric current flowing in any circuit.

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Introduction:

Let us see about introduction of electric circuits,

        An electric circuit is known as network which has a closed loop and produces a back way to the current. A network is a connection of two or more components, and may not essentially act as a circuit. It is a link of electrical components. These are resistor, capacitor and sources etc. Circuit reproduction software, like VHDL and HSPICE, allows designers to make circuits without the time and money.

About Electric Circuits:

Let us see about introduction of an electric circuits,

  • In introduction , an active elements of electric circuits are called as an electronic circuit. These networks are usually non-linear circuit and need more complex design and analysis.
  • To set an electrical circuit, that may be analog or digital, electrical engineers must being able to estimate the voltages and currents within the circuit.
  • Linear circuits that are circuits which having the same input and output frequency.

In introduction of these networks, it having the following elements,

  • Voltage sources
  • Current Sources
  • Linear lumped elements
  • Linear distributed elements

 Linear lumped elements:

It having following elements,

  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • Inductors

Linear distributed elements:

   Transmission lines which is defined by algebraic and transform methods to find out DC response, AC response, and transient response.

Laws of Electric Circuits:

Let us see about introduction about laws in electric circuits,

  • Kirchhoff's current law:

The addition of all currents incoming a node is equal to the sum of all currents outgoing the node.

  • Kirchhoff's voltage law:

The directed addition of the electrical potential differences about a loop has to be zero.

  • Ohm's law:

While stable temperature, the voltage crossways a resistor is equal to the multiplication of the resistance and the current flowing through it.

  • Norton's theorem:

The sources with resistors in a network are equal to a parallel connection of current source and resistor.

  • Thévenin's theorem:

 The sources with resistors in a network are equal to a series connection of voltage source and resistor.


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