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The Atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it has a positive charge (electron deficiency) or negative charge (electron excess) and is an ion. An atom is classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: the number of protons determines the chemical element, and the number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element.

angstrom

Atom structure:

  Atom is defined as the very small particle. The atoms are having many chemical properties of the elements. The atoms structure are having the nucleus at its center. The electrons are also present in the atom. The electron is always surrounds the nucleus part. The particles like protons and neutrons are also present in the atom.

Various Particles Present in the Diagram of an Atom Structure

The atom diagram structure consists of three types of particles. They are defined below the following,

1. Protons

2. Neutrons

3. Electrons

 


 ,The diagram of an atom structure is shown:--->

                                                            atomic number

 

Protons:

The protons present in the atom are having a positive charge. The positive charge is equal to the negative charge present in the electrons. The number of particles present in the atoms is used for the representation of the atomic number. Protons are 1836 times greater than the electrons. The proton structure is discovered by the scientist named Ernest Rutherford.

  • The mass of the proton is given by 938 MeV/c2 = 1.67 x 10-27 kg.
  • The charge of the3 proton is given by 1.602 x 10-19 Coulombs.
  • The diameter of the proton is given by 1.65 x 10-15 m.

The electrons are having the negative charges. The electrons cannot able to split into the further particles. The electrons move freely in the diagram of an atom. The electron forms the electron clouds.

  • The mass of an electron present in the atom is given by 9.2095 x 10-31 kg.
  • The charge of an electron present in the atom is given by -1.602177 x 10-19 C.
  • The electron rest energy present in the atom is given by 0.511 MeV.
  • The spin of an electron present in the atom is given by + `(1)/(2)` or -`(1)/(2)`

The charge of the neutron present in the atom is having neutral charge. The neutrons present in the atom are used to represent the isotope of the element.

  • The mass of the neutron is given by 1.67492729 × 10−27 kg.
  • The charge of the neutron is given by 0.  
  • The spin of the neutron is given by `(1)/(2)`

Introduction to Metal atomic structure:

Metals are large structures of atoms, in which these atoms are bonded to each other by strong metallic bonds.

 strong metalli bonds

In this atomic structure one metal is surrounded by the different number of atoms, the number of atom surrounded by particular atom is called as coordination number. Metal has 12, 8, 6 co-ordination number. 12 co-ordination number means one metal atom is surrounded by the 12 atoms. 8 means one metal atom is surrounded by 8 other atoms.

Properties of Metals Depends on the Metal Atomic Structure

All the properties of metals are depends on the metal atomic structure.  The different properties of metals are given as follows:

Melting points and boiling points

The boiling and melting points of metals are very high. This is because of the strength of the metallic bond. The strength of metallic bond is different for different metals. It also depends on the number of electrons which each atom delocalizes into the ocean of electrons. It means that melting and boiling points depends on metal atomic structure.

The melting and boiling points of potassium and that of sodium are relatively low because of  each atom only has one electron to contribute towards the bond.

Electrical conductivity

The atomic structure of metals is responsible for this property, electrical conductivity. In three-dimensional space, the delocalized electrons of the metal are free to move and even they can cross boundaries. Liquid metals are also good conductor of electricity. Therefore, electrical conductivity of metal depends on metal atomic structure. This decides up to how much power any metal conduct electricity.

thermal conductivity

The atomic structure of metals also gives the information that metals are very good conductors of heat. The electrons pick up the heat energy as the additional kinetic energy and hence, the electrons move faster. Thus, the heat energy is to the whole metal by the movement of these electrons.

Malleability and ductility

Metals are termed as malleable, i.e., they can be beaten into thin sheets and ductile, i.e., they can be pulled out into thin wires. Atomic structure of metal can explain this property. Atoms in the metals can roll over one other into new positions with no breaking of any metallic bond.


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