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Gravitation, or gravity, is a natural phenomenon by which physical bodies attract with a force proportional to their mass. In everyday life, gravitation is most familiar as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. Gravitation causes dispersed matter to coalesce, and coalesced matter to remain intact, thus accounting for the existence of the Earth, the Sun, and most of the macroscopic objects in the universe. Gravitation is responsible for keeping the Earth and the other planets in their orbits around the Sun, for keeping the Moon in its orbit around the Earth, for the formation of tides for natural convection, by which fluid flow occurs under the influence of a density gradient and gravity, for heating the interiors of forming stars and planets to very high temperatures; and for various other phenomena observed on Earth.


Introduction to gravity gravitation:

The expressions gravity also gravitation is frequently used to clarify the similar object, except here be a specific distinction among the two. Gravitation is the gorgeous force offered among either two objects to contain mass. Forces of gravitation drag things together. Gravity is the gravitational force to take place in the earth as well as other bodies. Gravity is the force of attraction by which earth attacks a body towards its centre.


            Given that gravitational force is the occurrence toward every object within the earth, as of the biggest galaxies along toward the least particle, it is frequently call common gravitation.

            On the basis of conclusion drawn from kepler’s laws and observations of motion of planets, Newton in 1686 gave a universal law of force acting between any two particles of matter; which may be stated as “Every two material particles of universe attract each other and this force of attraction is directly proportional to the product of masses of particles and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them”.

           The value of this force does not depend upon the medium between the masses.

 Newton’s law of gravitation F= GmM / r2

F - Force among two masses

m and M are the two masses

R - Distance among the middle of masses

G - Universal constant of gravitation


Gravity specifies gravitational force to happen among the earth also other bodies.

Gravity is the force performs for pulling things towards the earth.

       The force of attraction among two bodies is called gravitational force. If one of the bodies is earth, then this force of gravitation is called ‘gravity’ that is , gravity is the force of attraction by which earth attacks a body towards its centre. A ball unconfined as of the roof also the fruit separated as of a tree fall lying on the surface of earth owing to gravity.

        Gravity is the force to embrace us lying on the earth also causes things toward descend reverse toward the earth subsequent to individual thrown within the air.

         The force embrace things toward the earth’s float up depend not just scheduled the Earth's gravitational ground although  in addition on extra thing, for example the Earth's rotation.

         Earth’s gravitational drag expands not in keen on space during every direction. The additional you go away as of the midpoint of the Earth.

Gravitation Animation


The total force of attraction between two bodies is called gravitational force. If one of the bodies is earth, then this force of gravitational is called ‘gravity’ .Gravity is the force of attraction by which earth attacts a body towards its centre. A ball released from the roof and the fruit detached from a tree fall on the surface of earth due to gravity.

Gravitational Field

We know that every body of the universe attracts every other body. The region around a body in which any other particle experiences gravitation animation due to this body is called the gravitational field.

gravitation animation

Gravitational Field Strength:

             The gravitational field strength at any point in a gravitation animation is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass, when infinitesimal mass is placed at that point. If an infinitesimal (very small) mass m experiences a gravitational force F at a point, then gravitational field strength at that point,

gravitational force

Infinitesimal mass means that the original gravitation animation of field strength does not change due to presence of this mass.

Gravitational Potential Energy

The energy stored by a body due to its position in a gravitational field is called the gravitational potential energy. The gravitation animation potential energy at any point in the gravitational field is defined as the work done in bringing the body from reference position to that point.

From this definition it is clear that the value of gravitational potential energy depends on the reference position chosen. If we assume reference (or zero potential energy) position at the surface of earth, then potential energy at height h is

                              U = mgh

Gravitational Potential

             The gravitational potential at any point in the gravitational field is defined as the amount of work done per unit mass when infinitesimal mass is brought from infinity to that point. Here infinitesimal mass means that this mass does not cause any change is the original gravitation animation of field.

Definition of Fundamental forces in Nature:

Force is the cause that produces motion, change in motion and deformation in objects. In our daily life, we observe that force is needed to throw a ball, to stop a ball, and to stretch or compress a spring.

In macroscopic world, we experience a number of forces like gravitational force, muscular force, contact force between bodies, frictional force, etc., also in microscopic use number of forces like electric and magnetic forces, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force.

Fundamental Forces in Nature:

Some of fundamental forces in natures are,

  • Gravitational force
  • Electromagnetic force
  • Strong Nuclear force
  • Weak Nuclear force

Gravitational Force:

                The gravitational force is attractive in nature and arises die to attraction between any two objects due to their masses. It is universal force and acts between any two objects of universe. All objects on earth experience gravitational force due to large mass of earth.

                According to Newton’s law of gravitation, “The gravitational force of attraction among two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance among them”.

Electromagnetic Force:

                The magnitude of force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of magnitudes of charges and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. That is

electromagnetic force     (or)  force of attraction

                                                                force of gravity

Strong Nuclear Force:

                The strong nuclear force is the strongest among all the fundamental forces. It is the strong nuclear force which keeps the nucleons together in the small nucleus.

                Main characteristics of string nuclear forces are:

  • Nuclear force is strongest attractive force in nature.
  • Nuclear force is charge self-governing.
  • The burly nuclear force is short-range force.

Weak Nuclear Force:

                  Weak force arises in certain nuclear processes such as β-decay of a radioactive nucleus and operates among elementary particles.

Thus, gravitational force is the weakest force and the strong nuclear force is the strongest force in nature.

Measurement of Mass Introduction:

When an external force is applied on a body, the force tends to change the state of motion. The body either in magnitude or in direction, while the body opposes any change in its state of motion. The property by virtue of which a body opposes any change in the motion of the body is called the inertia.

Measurement of Mass of a Body

If F is applied force and a the acceleration produced in the body of mass m, then

body of mass

The mass of the body determined in this way is a measure of inertia and is called the inertial mass of the body. The inertial mass of a bus is sufficiently more than that of a cycle, because to produce same acceleration in a bus and a cycle, much larger force (push) is required in the case of a bus.

Inertial Mass

The inertial mass of a body can be measured by an inertial balance. An inertial balance consists of a long metallic strip. One end of this strip is clamped to a table, such that its flat face is vertical, so that it can vibrate horizontally. The other end of the strip supports a pan in which an object, whose inertial mass is be determined, is kept. The metal strip is allowed to vibrate horizontally and time of vibration is noted. The experiment is repeated with other object. The time of vibration depends upon

  1. Length of the projecting part of the clamp
  2. Stiffness of the material of the strip and
  3. Total mass of the pan and the object

Gravitational Mass

The weight of a body is proportional to its mass. The gravitational mass of a body is the mass which determines the gravitational pull due to earth acting on it.

Under the same condition9same place on earth at same altitude), the weights of two objects are proportional to their masses. If W1 and W2 are weights of two bodies placed at same place on earth, then

gravitational mass of body

Introduction to potential energy chemical:

Potential energy is force accumulate in a substantial scheme while a consequence of the location of the dissimilar element to scheme. Potential energy contain the potential toward subsist changed addicted to further shape of force; such the identical like kinetic energy also toward perform effort within the procedure. The SI components of compute for force contain potential energy with occupation.

Gravitational Energy:

              Gravitational energy is related by gravitational power. but an objective falls as of single position to a further within a gravitational meadow, the energy of significance resolve perform optimistic effort happening the object with the gravitational potential energy motivation diminish through the similar quantity.


  • Gravitational potential energy contain a quantity of sensible utilize, especially the invention of hydroelectricity.
  • Gravitational potential energy be as well utilize to control regulator within that declining weights activate the system.

Chemical Potential Energy:

              Chemical potential, represent through μ, a magnitude primary illustrate through the chemist. Chemical potential is an analogue toward stimulating potential with gravitational potential, operate the similar thought of energy meadow because individual the basis of belongings affecting sufficient.

              But toward some standardized accumulation within a status of hydrostatic pressure assume an insignificant number of some essence to be additional, the accumulation live identical with entropy, quantity outstanding unaffected, the enhance of an energy of accumulation separated in the amount of essence added is the possible for essence into the group measured.

              Every chemical part otherwise permutation of basics during recognized size might be measured a essence, accomplished or else not of obtainable through because a standardized remains. Chemical potential is as well passing on toward as partial molar Gibbs energy.

              The chemical potential is utilize in chemistry. The hotness is definite in conditions for Lagrange multiplier of the typical energy constriction. The chemical potential of a structure of electrons is as well recognized the fermi level.

              For arithmetical structure, Boltzmann establish to the proportion of atom contain an energy E is proportional to

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