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Ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. Ecosystems are defined by a web, community, or network of individuals that arrange into a self-organized and complex hierarchy of pattern and process. Ecosystems create a biophysical feedback between living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of an environment that generates and regulates the biogeochemical cycles of the planet. Ecosystems provide goods and services that sustain human societies and general well-being. Ecosystems are sustained by biodiversity within them. Biodiversity is the full-scale of life and its processes, including genes, species and ecosystems forming lineages that integrate into a complex and regenerative spatial arrangement of types, forms, and interactions.

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ecology biological organisation levels

Ecology is the biological discipline that deals with the interactions between organisms and their environment. This environment is a sum total of the physical environment (including temperature, water availability, wind, soil acidity) and biological or biotic environment which comprises any influences on an organism that are exerted by other organisms (including competition, predation, parasitism, cooperation).

Types of Ecology

There are various identifiable types of ecology.

  • Organismal Ecology: Study of individual organism's physiology, behavior in response to environmental conditions.
  • Population Ecology: Study of the population species and their interaction with the environment they live in.
  • Community ecology: Study of interactions among population species and between species and the abiotic environment including species diversity.
  • Ecosystem ecology: Study of the movement of energy and matters through ecosystem. It includes trophic levels, food webs, nutrient cycling.
  • Landscape ecology: Study of interaction between geography and ecology.
  • Global Ecology: Study of the global environment like earth’s ecosystems and its atmosphere.
  • Molecular ecology: Study of ecology with the help of molecular biology.

Significance of Studying Ecology

  • Ecology is a purely a scientific discipline which aims to understand the relationship between organism and their wider environment.
  • Ecology is only understandable in the light of evolution. The huge biodiversity is the result of millions of years of evolution. Ecology helps to understand the significance of conservation strategies and pollution control systems.
  • Ecology explains the fact that natural selection will favor those genes which are passed on to future generation, even if these genes any cause a reduction in the species population size.
  • Genes and environment are given equal importance in the study of ecology.
  • Ecology is a complex subject where mathematical models are used to test the hypothesis in various aspects. Even chemistry and physics are integrated in the study of ecology.
  • Chance events play significant roles on ecology. The opening of a gap in forest canopy or the breaching of a sand dune after a storm will have a major impact on the ecology of the local flora and fauna, but both are unpredictable in either time or location.

Ecology Ecosystem:

Let us we will discuss about what is ecology ecosystem. An ecosystem is constituted by the interactions of all populations of various species with one another. Ecosystem may be of a small or a large size. Ecosystem could be aquatic or terrestrial. Terrestrial ecosystem includes forests, grasslands and deserts. Aquatic ecosystem include freshwater like rivers, springs, lakes and ponds.

Functions of Ecosystem

  • Two important functions are carried out in every eco system:
  • Flow of energy
  • Bio-geo-chemical cycling of materials.
  • The flow of energy begins what the producer organisms absorb sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.
  • Consumers utilize this chemical energy as food and it is finally released into atmosphere in the form of heat energy.
  • As organisms use only chemical energy,the heat energy cannot be reused.
  • In this ecology way the flow of energy is one-way.

Ecological Pyramids

  • Ecological pyramids are constructed through stratified arrangement of organisms in each tropic level.
  • Either the number of organisms,their biomass or the amount of energy available at what level is taken into account in the construction of the pyramid.
  • 3 kinds of pyramids can be constructed:
  1. Pyramid of Numbers
  2. Pyramid of Biomass
  3. Pyramid of Energy
  • The production of biomass through the use of available energy at each tropihic level is called ecology efficiency of that particular level.
  • Ecology efficiency of each trophic level is different.
  • At the level of producers,the ecology efficiency is determined by the amount of solar energy utilized in what the process of photosynthesis.
  • Different kinds of plants have different ecological efficiencies.
  • It is low in trees,more in what grasses and still more in algae.

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