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Alkynes include the class of organic compounds when at least one or more carbon-carbon triple bond is present. In this case, “yne” is added to the name of the parent chain.

Another class of compounds called “alcohols” is formed when one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by the hydroxyl group (OH -), we get an alcohol. While naming, “ol” is added to the chain name.

Methods of Preparation of Alkynes

Industrial method : It is prepared by the hydrolysis of calcium carbide

                                  CaC2    +   2 H2O    `->`   H - C carbide C - H  +  Ca(OH)2

Laboratory methods of preparation

1. Dehydrohalogenation : Acetylene is obtained when 1 , 2 or 1 , 1- dihaloethane is treated with alcoholic KOH .

alkynes

2. Dehalogenation of  1 , 1 , 2 , 2 - tetrahaloethane :  1 , 1 , 2 , 2 - tetrabromoethane on heating with Zn dust gives acetylene .

Dehalogenation

3. From haloform : Acetylene is obtained by heating iodoform , CHI3 with silver powder .

          CHI3    +   6 Ag    +    I3HC    acetylene H - C carbide C - H  +  6 AgI

4. Kolbe's electrolysis :  Acetylene is prepared by the electrolysis of a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium maleate or fumarate .

electrolysis  

Uses of Alkyne

  • Acetylene is used in the form of oxy-acetylene flame in welding and cutting tools .
  • Used in th epreapretion of vinyl plastics .
  • Used in the preparation of several carbon compounds like acetaldehyde , acetic acid , ethyl alcohol , benzene  etc .
  • Used in the preparation of solvents westron ( acetylene tetrachloride ) westrol ( trichloroethylene ) .
  • Used in Hawker's lamp and in light houses for illumination purposes .

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