States of Matter Online Chemistry




States of matter are the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on. Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in bulk properties. Solid is the state in which matter maintains a fixed volume and shape; liquid is the state in which matter maintains a fixed volume but adapts to the shape of its container; and gas is the state in which matter expands to occupy whatever volume is available.

Introduction to states of matter:

     Below the normal condition of temperature and pressure matter can be presented in the different states. Normally matter can be presented in three states.  States of matter is depending upon its physical properties and chemical properties.

Three types of states of matter as follows,

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

Properties of Solid:

Definition of solid:

      The molecules of the substances are closely packed in definite order. The intermolecular space is very small and the intermolecular forces in solids are very strong. When solid is heated, it changes into liquid state. Solids cannot be condensed. Solids have finite shape and finite volume. The highly arrangement of the particles in solids is called a lattice. Lattice is the one of the properties of solid.

Properties of solid:

  • Solids have constant shape and definite volume.
  • Solids have high mass.
  • Solids show only slight expansion on heating.
  • Solids have slight or no compressibility.
  • Solids do not gush.
  • Solids have their melting and boiling points above room temperature.
  • The particles of a solid possess low energy.
  • Intermolecular forces are very strong and constituent particles are closely packed. This arrangement makes the solids strong, hard and rigid.
  • A Solid does not load its container completely.

Properties of Liquid:

Definition of liquid:

      The molecules of the substance are loosely packed. The intermolecular forces in liquids are stronger than in solids. When liquid is heated, it is converted into gaseous state. The intermolecular forces in liquid are weak, so the molecules of liquids can move from one position to another position within the liquid. This is the reason that liquids do not have definite shape.

Properties of liquid:

  • Liquid has constant volume but no permanent shape.
  • Liquids have high density but less than solids.
  • Liquids show slight expansion on heating but more than solids.
  • Liquids have slight compressibility but more than solids.
  • Liquids generally flow easily.
  • Liquids have their melting point below room temperature.
  • The particles of a liquid possess high energy.
  • Intermolecular forces are tough enough keeping the particles together but not strong enough to keep them in fixed positions.
  • A Liquid does not fill its container completely.

Properties of Gas:

Definition of Gas:

      In gases, the molecules of the substances are very much farther from each other. The intermolecular spaces are 1000 times or more than liquid. So the intermolecular forces are very small. This is the reason gases have no definite shape and volume. When liquid is heated, it is converted into vapour or gas.

Properties of solid:

  • Solids have constant shape and definite volume.
  • Solids have high mass.
  • Solids show only slight expansion on heating.
  • Solids have slight or no compressibility.
  • Solids do not gush.
  • Solids have their melting and boiling points above room temperature.
  • The particles of a solid possess low energy.
  • Intermolecular forces are very strong and constituent particles are closely packed. This arrangement makes the solids strong, hard and rigid.
  • A Solid does not load its container completely.

Introduction to states of matter animation:

State of matter is described in terms of the phase transitions which indicate the change in structure and properties. Solids, liquids and gases all are made up of microscopic particles. The behavior of all these particles varies in three phases. Let us see the animation of states of matter.

Microscopic View of States of Matter

Solid:

  • Solids tend to be tightly packed, normally in a regular pattern.
  •  Solids used to vibrate and cannot moved from one place to another easily.
  • It retains fixed shape and volume.
  • It is rigid and particles of solids used to lock into place.
  • It cannot be easily compressed.
  • Between the particles, it has little free space.
  • It cannot be flow easily.

 Liquid:

  • When the system’s energy is increased, liquid is formed.
  • Liquid particles are close together and there is no regular arrangement between them.
  • They used to vibrate and move or slide past each other.
  • Have the tendency to occupy the shape of container.
  • They cannot be easily compressible.
  • Can flow easily.
  • There is very little free space between the particles.
  • Liquids have a defined volume and undefined shape.

 Gas:

  • Gases are formed when the attractive force between the molecules are higher than the system’s energy.
  • There is no regular arrangement between the particles so they are well separated.
  • Gases vibrate and tend to move freely at very high speeds.
  • They assume the container’s volume and shape.
  • Particles of gases are compressible.
  • Lots of free space is present between the particles.
  • Can flow easily.
  • Particles of gas can easily move past one another.

Summary on States of Matter:

Solid, liquid and gas all are the most common states of matter that are present on the planet. Due to the closeness of particles in liquids and solids, they are known as condensed phases.


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